TABLE 1. Caricaturas 2. UK: Half of British Members leave office by scandal BILLS Source: El Pais / 3 Madrid. REVOLUTION IN VENEZUELA IS THERE ‘Source: Aserne in Venezuela 4. ARGENTINA ‘VENEZUELA: Press Fernandez FOR NEW MEDIA TO ESTATIZACIONES Chavez Source: The Mercury / Santiago de Chile 5. A STRATEGY FOR THE FUTURE CAN HELP DEALING WITH CRISIS Source: S. Millan / P. Belly – Madrid 6. Assign ALL OF TRADING IN UNITED STATES OF FTA WITH ACKNOWLEDGMENT Rafael Correa A COLOMBIA AND PERU Source: Weather / Bogota 7. listening ‘(info helps window)
After finishing the first half of the nineteenth century, according to the Cuban internationalist Raul de Cardenas, through successive acquisitions of Louisiana in 1803, Florida in 1819 and Texas in 1845, The United States remained as owners of the entire northern coast of Gulf of Mexico, occupying the former position of Spain in what was then called the American Mediterranean. But the dominance of the region was shared with the United Kingdom who was owner of the Bahamas, the Lesser Antilles and Jamaica, and land from the Guianas and Belize and mosquitoes.
Most of these routes to a Istmico Canal, were investigated several times and others not shown on the map, were also proposed during the nearly four centuries during which they discussed the construction of the canal. 1. Tehuantepec route. 2.-7. Nicaragua routes. 8. Ruta de Chiriqui. 9. Ruta del Canal de Panama. 10. Route de San Blass. 11.-15. Caledonia routes and Darien. 16.-30. Atrato routes.
Despite not having an immediate cause of rivalry, the construction of a canal to expedite the transit between the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific, an idea conceived almost from the discovery, was an undertaking that the two powers face sooner or later.
For its part, New Grenada, not considering the statement as a sufficient guarantee of the Monroe Doctrine of 1823, housed fear England, due to the taking of the Falkland Islands from Argentina in 1770, and the most recent appropriation of the Mosquitia completed Sir Gregor MacGregor, in 1824 the so-called ‘Namville Neustrie. Also in 1825, the British seized the town of Bocas del Toro, establishing its sovereignty over the Panamanian land today and subsequently establishing factories in the port of San Juan del Norte Nicaraguan and Costa teaching.
Given the strategic importance of the Gulf of Darien, New Granada in 1822 and 1826 began to receive proposals for building an inter-oceanic canal in Panama, but none of them thriving due to the conviction of Bogota, who believed that the route should be built with resources and administered by local authorities.
Incidentally, in 1835 when the Beagle Bergantin with a scientific expedition under the command of Captain English Henslow, whose crew included to celebrate Charles Darwin later, arrived at the Pearl Archipelago, the Grenadines, as they were warned against the English, sent an Crew to guard the islands, which led to the Anglo-Saxons do not delay in the visit.
Resolution of March 3, 1835, gave power to the president of United States to seek negotiations with Central America and New Granada in search of a transit route that would open the Atlantic-Pacific, in a spirit of universality navegacion from all nations, providing a reasonable tolls, to pay private corporations wishing to undertake the task of building the infrastructure necessary for that purpose. This was Colonel Charles Beagle which was commissioned by the then president, Andrew Jackson, to make studies of the Nicaragua route, but finally finished getting an award, previously enjoyed Baron Charles de Thierry, in order to make a connection by ferrea the route of the Darien (Isthmus of Panama), in negotiations with Bogota. But the governor Beagle died before undertaking the project.
For similar resolution in 1839, President Martin Van Buren appointed John L. Stephens, with a mission similar to the Beagle, in the end recommending this path for the Rio San Juan and Lake Nicaragua as the optimal route for inter-oceanic canal, with a cost estimated at U.S. 25,000,000 at that time: so was established that only the paths of Nicaragua and Panama, would the project viability. This determination is coupled with the gold rush in California in mid-century, and the wave of immigrants looking for safe routes to reach the Pacific, led to an enduring rivalry between Panama and Nicaragua.
Given the facts indicative of an expansionist policy in the British area, and feel powerless to neutralize it, when the U.S. government to invite the New Granada to hold a Treaty of Peace, commerce and navigation, that I consider appropriate. Granada was intended to ensure the perpetuity of American sovereignty by making it safe from the French domination and British ambitions.
Frontispiece Panama Railroad. 1857.
After unsuccessful efforts by the U.S. diplomacy in 1846 the treaty was finally concluded, signed by the charge d’affaires at Bogota, Benjamin A. Bidlack and the Foreign Secretary of the New Granada, Manuel Maria Mallarino.

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